Only a few feet away from the vent the temperature of the ocean bottom will remain near freezing, about 4.5˚C. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of archaea in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments such as effluent vent water and chimney structures. This bacterium is the base of the vent community food web, and supports hundreds of species of animals. He has found evidence of life in rock below the sea floor which might have provided the right environment for life to start. The cold seawater is heated by hot magma and reemerges to form the vents. Sci. A methanogenic archaeon isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluid was found to reduce N2 to NH3 at up to 92°C, which is 28°C higher than the current upper temperature limit of biological nitrogen fixation. pH: 0.9–9.8 Temperature: up to 92°C (197.6°F) Color: Cream or yellow-colored Metabolism: Chemosynthesis, using hydrogen, sulfur, carbon dioxide Form: Unicellular, tough cell membrane Location: In many of Yellowstone’s hydrothermal features Sulfolobus is the genus most often isolated. Here, we investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in the two deep-sea sediments (named as TVG4 and … "This is assumed, for example, for the Asgard archaea that were just discovered a few years ago on the seabed off of California. Bill Nye discusses the discovery of hydrothermal vents on the ocean's floor Hydrothermal vents are the result of seawater percolating down through fissures in the ocean crust in the vicinity of spreading centers or subduction zones (places on Earth where two tectonic plates move away or towards one another). Although this helped solidify archaea’s claim, by this time most researchers had accepted that archaea, indeed, made up a third domain of life. Hydrogenase genes from hydrothermal vents have been targeted by PCR amplification (group 1 and F 420-reducing [NiFe] ... Archaea and bacteria with surprising microdiversity show shifts in dominance over 1,000-year time scales in hydrothermal chimneys. Archaea are unicellular organisms that make up the third domain of organisms on earth. Acad. “They love it because they’re basically sitting in a Jacuzzi,” says Anna-Louise Reysenbach, a professor of biology at Portland State University and an author of the new study. Active deep‐sea hydrothermal vents are areas of intense mixing and severe thermal and chemical gradients, fostering a biotope rich in novel hyperthermophilic microorganisms and metabolic pathways. To solve that problem, the team looked at existing archaea bacteria in deep-sea vents. The Pompeii worm, a feathery worm that lives near hydrothermal vents, can withstand temperatures up to 176 degrees Fahrenheit (80 degrees Celsius) by shielding its tail-end with heat resistant bacteria. Organisms that live around hydrothermal vents don't rely on sunlight and photosynthesis. Instead, bacteria and archaea use a process called chemosynthesis to convert minerals and other chemicals in the water into energy. Other celestial bodies, such as Enceladus and Europe, which are moons of Saturn and Jupiter , respectively, are believed to have active hydrothermal vents. They contribute nutrients required by ocean organisms. 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